Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета




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НазваниеМетодические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета
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Totalitarianism


1) Totalitarianism is a form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of the individual's life to the authority of the government. Totalitarianism is often distinguished from dictatorship, despotism, or tyranny by its supplanting of all political institutions with new ones and its sweeping away of all legal, social, and political traditions. The totalitarian state pursues some special goal, such as industrialization or conquest, to the exclusion of all others.


2) All resources are directed toward its attainment regardless of the cost. Whatever might further the goal is supported; whatever might foil the goal is rejected. This obsession spawns an ideology that explains everything in terms of the goal, rationalizing all obstacles that may arise and all forces that may contend with the state. The resulting popular support permits the state the widest latitude of action of any form of government. Any dissent is branded evil, and internal political differences are not permitted. Because pursuit of the goal is the only ideological foundation for the totalitarian state, achievement of the goal can never be acknowledged.


3) Under totalitarian rule, traditional social institutions and organizations are discouraged and suppressed; thus the social fabric is weakened and people become more amenable to absorption into a single, unified movement. Participation in approved public organizations is at first encouraged and then required. Old religious and social ties are supplanted by artificial ties to the state and its ideology. As pluralism and individualism diminish, most of the people embrace the totalitarian state's ideology. The infinite diversity among individuals blurs, replaced by a mass conformity to the belief and behavior sanctioned by the state.


4) Large-scale, organized violence becomes permissible and sometimes necessary under totalitarian rule, justified by the overriding commitment to the state ideology and pursuit of the state's goal. In Nazi Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, whole classes of people, such as the Jews and the kulaks (wealthy peasant farmers), respectively, were singled out for persecution and extinction. In each case the persecuted were linked with some external enemy and blamed for the state's troubles, and thereby public opinion was aroused against them and their fate at the hands of the military and the police was condoned.


5) Police operations within a totalitarian state often appear similar to those within a police state, but one important difference distinguishes them. In a police state the police operate according to known, consistent procedures. In a totalitarian state the police operate without the constraints of laws and regulations. The actions are unpredictable and directed by the whim of their rulers. Under Hitler and Stalin uncertainty was interwoven into the affairs of the state.


6) The German constitution of the Weimar Republic was never abrogated under Hitler, but an enabling act passed by the Republic in 1933 permitted him to amend the constitution at will, in effect nullifying it. The role of lawmaker became vested in one man. Similarly, Stalin provided a constitution for the Soviet Union in 1936 but never permitted it to become the framework of Soviet law. Instead, he was the final arbiter in the interpretation of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism and changed his interpretations at will. Neither Hitler nor Stalin permitted change to become predictable, thus increasing the sense of terror among the people and repressing any dissent.


№11 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:


  1. What does the term "totalitarianism" imply?

  2. What is the main feature that distinguishes totalitarianism from dictatorship, despotism and tyranny?

  3. How does the state's ideology influence the people under totalitarian rule?

  4. What is the nature of public opinion in totalitarian states?


№12 Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными (true) или неверными (false). Исправьте неверные утверждения и перепишите их.


  1. Totalitarianism is a political system in which only one political party and no rival loyalties are permitted.

  2. Under totalitarian rule all resources are directed toward the attainment of some special goal which is in fact never achieved.

  3. The activity of social institutions and organizations are encouraged and stimulated by the totalitarian government.

  4. Acquiescence is the only means of surviving under totalitarian rule.

  5. The totalitarian regime spawns lots of internal and external enemies responsible for the state's troubles and condemned by public opinion.

  6. Under totalitarianism old religious and social ties are hardly condoned.

  7. Popular support of the totalitarian state's ideology is always unanimous and sincere.

  8. Organized violence is necessary in totalitarian states as it is justified by the pursuit of the state's goal and therefore is considered legal.



Вариант №2


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. What did you do when you (to find) out you (to lose) your wallet?

  2. Look! I believe it is Mrs. Stern who (to cross) the street.

  3. I have sworn that I (not to go) back till I (see) all the marvels of this oriental city.

  4. When I come tomorrow, they (to sit) here for 20 minutes.

  5. He admitted that he (to live) in London at various times.

  6. Who (to break) the window?

  7. He (not to listen) to the music at the moment. He (to watch) TV.

  8. “Hello! I (to try) to telephone you all week. Where you (to be)?”


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения:


  1. “I can’t help you because I have too much work to do”. (She said…)

  2. “Would you like to come to my party?” (He invited her…)

  3. “Don’t be stupid.” (She told me…)

  4. The children were playing in the yard. (She thought…)

  5. Her friend will come to see her. (She hoped…)


№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. By the time I arrived at the concert hall, there were no tickets left. They (were sold/had been sold).

  2. The tower of London (was built/is built) at the beginning of the eleventh century.

  3. We couldn’t use the photocopier yesterday morning. It (was repaired/was being repaired).

  4. A compass (is used/is being used) for showing direction.

  5. Have you heard? The old police station (was repainted/has been repainted).

  6. Millions of cars (are exported/are being exported) from Japan every month.

  7. I (was being frighten/was frighten) when I drove through Paris last Month.

  8. “What’s happened?” – “The window (has been broken/was broken).”


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


Professor: What is history?

Student: It’s a science dealing with the development of human society.

Professor: When did historical thought appear?

Student: I think it goes as far back as the 4th-3rd millennium B.C.

Professor: You are quite right. Could you give me the names of the most famous ancient historians?

Student: Certainly. They are: Herodotus, who was the “father of History”, Xenophon and Polybius. They all come from Ancient Greece. As to the historians of Ancient Rome, Titus, Tacitus and Plutarch are most well-known.

Professor: That’s right. What can be said about the first historical writings?

Student: As far as I know they were stone inscriptions, reviews and chronicles showing various events in Egypt, Babylon, Assyria and Persia.

Professor: Exactly so. Do you know any Russian historians of the 18th or 19th centuries?

Student: If I’m not mistaken, Russian historiography is represented by Karamzin, Granovsky, Solovyev, Kluchevsky and others.

Professor: So much for today. See you tomorrow.


№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. Our (to correspond) over the years has helped us build a good relationship. (существительное)

  2. Travelling by train is far more (comfort) than traveling by bus. (прилагательное)

  3. It is sad that so many older people are afraid and (lone) in today’s society. (прилагательное)

  4. Some unusual stamps are (special) rare and expensive. (наречие)

  5. There is a great (to vary) of flowers growing in our garden. (существительное)

  6. The clerk’s attitude was not only (to help) but also very rude. (прилагательное)

  7. Her high-heeled shoes were quite (to suit) for the rocky road. (прилагательное)

  8. The firefighters moved into (to act) as soon as the alarm sounded. (существительное)


№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. (During/for) the meeting the chief engineer spoke several times.

  2. Mr. Brown is out. He’ll be back (in/after) an hour.

  3. The competition should take place (in/on) Wednesday morning.

  4. I can’t sleep (in/at) night. I have insomnia.

  5. He was sitting (among/between) Nina and Jane.


b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. There is nothing (on/in) the bottle.

  2. The post office is (at/in) the end of the street.

  3. The village is (among/between) the trees.

  4. Hang the picture (on/at) the hook.

  5. She looked (across/through) the window.


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. The Russian language of a twentieth century differs from the Russian language of a twenty first century.

  2. What’s a weather like today?

  3. His is the interpreter from the Dutch into the English.

  4. A sun rises on the East.

  5. Everything will be done in the flick of an eyelash.

  6. The every Sunday I watch the programme “The Magic of the Word.”

  7. More snow, better for crops.

  8. My house is a third to a right.

  9. What languages are spoken in the Argentina?

  10. The last year they staged a new play.



№8 Прочитайте текст в задании 10 и найдите в нем следующие слова и выражения:


подавление основных гражданских свобод; проводить далеко идущие социальные реформы; нацистская Германия; военная диктатура; душить оппозицию;

явиться стимулом; выступать в союзе с кем-то; запугивание; настоятельная необходимость выживания нации; увеличение полномочий исполнительной власти; оказаться несостоятельным


№9 Совместите следующие слова с их значениями:


a) maintain

1) family origins of a stated type

b) decline

2) of or based on a political system in which every citizen is subject to the power of the state, which exercises complete control over all areas of life

c) descent

3) to keep in existence

d) inherit

4) refusal to agree, especially with an opinion that is held by most people

e) capture

5) a ruler with complete power, usually gained unjustly and by force, who rules cruelly and unjustly

f) totalitarian

6) movement to a lower or worse position

g) dissent

7) to receive property, title, etc. left by someone who has died

h) survive

8) to take control of something by force from an enemy; win, gain

i) tyrant

9) believing or demanding that rules and laws must always be obeyed whether or not they are right

j) authoritarian

10) to continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to death



№10 Переведите 1, 2, 6 абзацы текста на русский язык.


Dictatorship


  1. Dictatorship is a form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations. The term dictatorship comes from the Latin title dictator, which in the Roman Republic designated a temporary magistrate who was granted extraordinary powers in order to deal with state crises. Modern dictators, however, resemble ancient tyrants rather than ancient dictators. Ancient philosophers' descriptions of the tyrannies of Greece and Sicily go far toward characterizing modern dictatorships. Dictators usually resort to force or fraud to gain despotic political power, which they maintain through the use of intimidation, terror, and the suppression of basic civil liberties. They may also employ techniques of mass propaganda in order to sustain their public support.




  1. With the decline and disappearance in the 19th and 20th centuries of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became one of the two chief forms of government in use by nations throughout the world, the other being constitutional democracy. Rule by dictators has taken several different forms. In Latin America in the 19th century, various dictators arose after effective central authority had collapsed in the new nations recently freed from Spanish colonial rule. These self-proclaimed leaders usually led a private army and tried to establish control over a territory before marching upon a weak national government.




  1. Later 20th century dictators in Latin America were different. They were national rather than provincial leaders and often were put in their position of power by nationalistic military officers, as was Juan Peron of Argentina. They usually allied themselves with a particular social class, and attempted either to maintain the interests of wealthy and privileged elites or to institute far-reaching left-wing social reforms.




  1. In the new states of Africa and Asia after World War II, dictators quickly established themselves on the ruins of constitutional arrangements inherited from the Western colonial powers that had proved unworkable in the absence of a strong middle class and in the face of local traditions of autocratic rule. In some of such countries, elected presidents and prime ministers captured personal power by establishing one-party rule and suppressing the opposition, while in others the army seized power and established military dictatorships.




  1. The communist and fascist dictatorships that arose in various technologically advanced countries in the first half of the 20th century were distinctively different from the authoritarian regimes of Latin America or the postcolonial dictatorships of Africa and Asia. Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin were the leading examples of such modern totalitarian dictatorships. The crucial elements of both were the identification of the state with a single mass party and of the party with its charismatic leader, the use of an official ideology to legitimize and maintain the regime, the use of terror and propaganda to suppress dissent and stifle opposition, and the use of modern science and technology to control the economy and individual behavior. Soviet-type communist dictatorships arose in central and eastern Europe, China, and other countries in the wake of World War II.




  1. Many forces at work in the 20th century appear to lend impetus to the rise of monocratic forms of rule. In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives have increased in response to the demanding social, economic, and military crises of the age. The complex decisions required of governments in a technological era, the perfectionist impulses of the great bureaucratic structures that have developed in all industrialized societies, and the imperatives of national survival in a nuclear world continue to add to the process of executive aggrandizement. The question for many constitutional regimes is whether the limitation and balance of power that are at the heart of constitutional government can survive the growing enlargement of executive power.


№11 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:


  1. What is the origin of the term dictatorship?

  2. What techniques did dictators use to maintain their political power?

  3. Which two main forms of government were typical in the world in
    the 19th and 20th centuries?

  4. What are the crucial elements that differentiate communist and fascist dictatorships from authoritarian regimes of Latin America and postcolonial dictatorships of Asia and Africa?


№12 Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными (true) или неверными (false). Исправьте неверные утверждения и перепишите их.


  1. In the course of maintaining their despotic political power dictators don't usually neglect using techniques of mass propaganda.

  2. With the decline and disappearance of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became the only chief form of government in use by nations throughout the world.

  3. 20th century dictators in Latin America were less national than provincial leaders.

  4. In the new states of Africa and Asia after World War II the conditions for establishing dictatorial rule were extremely unfavorable.

  5. The common crucial elements of both communist and fascist dictatorships shouldn't lead one to the conclusion that they are quite identical.

  6. Under no circumstances could constitutional democracies have anything in common with dictatorship.

  7. In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives decreased due to the demanding social, economic and military crises of the age.

  8. Whether the main values of constitutional ruling can survive the growing enlargement of executive power still remains unpredictable.



Вариант №3


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. “Can you come on Sunday evening?” – “Sorry, but I (to play) volleyball.”

  2. Don’t phone between 7 and 8. Tomorrow we (to have) dinner at that time.

  3. Where have you been? I (to look) for you for the last half hour.

  4. She (to wait) for me when I arrived.

  5. “Do you see Ann very often?” – “No, I (not to see) her for three months.”

  6. We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody (to break) into the office during the night. So we (to call) the police.

  7. I will let you know as soon as I (to find out) where the hotel is.

  8. Ted and Mary (to be married) for 20 years.


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения:


  1. “Ann has bought the tickets”. (I was told…)

  2. “It took me three hours to get here because the roads are flooded”. (He told me…)

  3. “You should stop smoking”. (The doctor advised my brother …)

  4. “Could you change the light bulb for me?” (She asked me…)

  5. Our sportsmen will win the game. (We were sure…)


№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. “Can I take these documents?” – “I’m afraid not. They (are not typed/haven’t been typed) yet.”

  2. The island (is surrounded/is being surrounded) by water.

  3. The electric bulb (was invented/is invented) by Thomas Edison.

  4. Even though construction costs are high, a new dormitory (will be built/will have been built) next year.

  5. The group was too large, so it (was divided/has been divided) into two parts.

  6. “Is the plane going to be late?” – “No, It (is expected/is being expected) to be on time.”

  7. I had to wait a little. When I came the students (were tested/were being tested).

  8. Paper, the main writing material today, (was invented/will be invented) by Chinese.


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


Peter: Did your father take part in the Great Patriotic War?

Jane: Yes, he did. He is a war veteran. Now he is a retired officer, a colonel.

Peter: I see. When did he go to the front?

Jane: He says he went there at the outbreak of the war when the fascists attacked our country and our people took up arms.

Peter: Was he an infantryman or an artilleryman?

Jane: Neither. He served in the armor troops as a tank man.

Peter: Well. What great battles did he fight?

Jane: As far as I know he took part in the Great battle on the Volga and in that of Berlin.

Peter: I am sure he has told you many interesting things about those battles.

Jane: Of course, he has. For instance, speaking of the battle on the Volga he says it was the turning point because it determined the outcome of the war.

Peter: And we could pass from defensive to offensive operations, and we finally encircled a large group of German armies. Field Marshal Paulus was taken prisoner.


№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. His (to perform) as Hamlet was a huge success. (существительное)

  2. Many (Europe) countries now use the Euro as their official currency. (прилагательное)

  3. Being very (ambition), he graduated with top honours at a very young age. (прилагательное)

  4. Despite his nervousness he won the 100 metre race (easy) (наречие)

  5. His (to choose) of music was not to my liking. (существительное)

  6. We saw the most (beauty) sunset in Florida last year. (прилагательное)

  7. We have a lot of (free) in our choice of courses next year. (существительное)

  8. Everyone has a (responsible) to keep our city clean. (существительное)



№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. (On/At) 15th of January I’m going to take an exam.

  2. I was born (on/at) 26th of July.

  3. I have been doing this work (from/since) morning.

  4. He usually goes to the gym (on/in) Friday evening.

  5. He’ll be waiting for me at hotel (at/on) 5 o’clock.


b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. The train went (across/through) the tunnel.

  2. He walked (up/above) the stairs.

  3. We didn’t know what to do, so (in/at) the end we decided to go (at/to) the cinema.

  4. He put the documents (on/at) the table.

  5. They found the boy (among/between) the bushes in the garden.


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. I need an information.

  2. The supper consisted of the fish and the chips.

  3. The postmark first appeared in the England in the 1840.

  4. His name is on the tip of my tongue, but I can’t remember it.

  5. Stronger the storm, sooner it’ll pass.

  6. She has the big family and that’s why from morning till night she is as busy as the bee.

  7. The next Monday I’ll have to be in Moscow.

  8. I’m looking for the new pair of gloves.

  9. “Did you enjoy a performance?” – “It was great.”

  10. I can’t go for the walk with you.


№8. Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем следующие слова и выражения:


ультралевые; ультраправые; похищение людей; внутренние конфликты;

приверженцы анархизма; дестабилизировать существующие политические институты; люди, стоящие у власти; политическое убийство; захват заложников;

психологическая война; телерепортаж; запугивать кого-либо


№9 Совместите следующие слова с их значениями:


a) banishment

1) to murder a ruler, politician, or other important person

b) heresy

2) taking control of an aircraft using the threat of force in order to make political demands

c) victim

3) the act of causing someone severe physical pain as a punishment or to force someone to give information

d) hijacking

4) not guilty of a crime or sin; blameless

e) assassinate

5) a person, animal, or thing that suffers pain, death, harm, destruction, etc.

f) denomination

6) a complaint or cause for complaint, especially when one feels one has been unfairly treated

g) innocent

7) a belief that is against the official or accepted beliefs of a religion or other group

h) execution

8) sending away by official order from one’s own country as a punishment

i) torture

9) a religious group that is part of a larger religious body

j) grievance

10) a case of lawful killing as a punishment


№10 Переведите 1, 4, 5,6 абзацы текста на русский язык.

1   2   3   4   5

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